What is Cancer?

Cancer is an abnormal growth of a body cell or group of cells. If it is not destroyed or removed, cancer can spread very rapidly, and eventually lead to death.

Is cancer hereditary?

There are probably inherited tendencies that may lead to Cancers of different types. The presence of cancer in one or both parents should be a cause for greater alertness in looking for end recognizing suspicious symptoms in the individual. Cancer however is not inherited except for one type of eye cancer known as Retinoblastoma. Only 5% of breast cancers are considered hereditary.

What causes cancer?

It is very difficult to pinpoint the definite cause, certain substances, known as carcinogens, can definite increase your chances of getting cancer. For instance, people. Who smokes or chew tobacco are more prone to mouth, throat and lung cancer, contrary to popular opinion, beedi smoking is twice as dangerous as cigarettes. Majority of cancer is caused by a combination of hereditary factors , nutritional factor and prolonged continuous exposure to cancer causing agents .

How does cancer work ?

It works in 3 ways. a. Cancer cells grow through the walls of blood, vessels and are carried by the blood stream to other parts of the body. b. They enter the lymphatic stream and are carried to the lymph glands. c. They grew directly in contiguity from one tissue to another .

Who gets cancer ?

Cancer can occur at any age, the incident is high after the age of 40 to 45. The life style of the people make more chances to some cancers, that is cancers of colon, lung and skin .are common in western countries, where as cancers involving the oral cavity are more common in India.. In women, cancer of the breast and cervix are common in Nepal.

Can cancer be prevented ?

1/3 of all CANCERS ARE PREVENTABLE. A healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition will prevent majority of cancers. In addition to this avoiding known cancer producing agents and habits such as tobacco, beetle quid chewing,. sexual promiscuity, hepatitis B infection and over exposure to sunlight will prevent cancers of the lung ,oral cavity, cervics, liver and skin respectively.

Can cancer be cured ?

1/3 of all cancers are curable, if detected early and treated properly. The following common cancers can be detected early and when treated properly can be cured. BREAST, CERVIX, COLON, RECTUM, ORAL, THYROED, PROSTATE. These comprise 18.2% of all cancers in male and 52.2% of all cancers in female.

How is cancer cured ?

For most cancer detected early, surgery is the main mode of treatment. In certain sites of the doby like the cervix, oral, cavity, larynx and breast, small cancerous tumors can also be cured by radiotherapy. For certain cancers, such as choriocarcinoma, leukemia and lymphoma are treated by chemotherapy.

What is cancer pain Relief and palliative care ?

Palliative care is the active total care of patients, which disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social and spiritual problems are paramount . The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best possible quality of life for patients and their families. Many aspects of palliative care are also applicable earlier in the course of the illness, in conjunction with anti cancer treatment Palliative care: - affirms life and regards dying as a normal process. - Neither hastens nor postpones death. - Provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms. - Integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care...

what are some early sings of Cancer?

  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that does not heal .
  • Unusual bleedings or discharge.
  • Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere.
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing .
  • Obvious change in wart or mole.
  • Nagging cough or hoarseness.

What are the early symptoms of Cancer?

There are eight alarming symptoms of cancer:

  • Nagging cough or hoarseness and sores that do not heal.
  • Longer period presence of incurable cough.
  • Change in bowels habit or bladder function
  • Unusual Weight loss
  • Difficulty swallowing or Indigestion.
  • Unusual bleeding and discharges.
  • Change in the colors and size of wart or mole.
  • Lump in breast or other parts of the body.
  • Recent change in a wart or mole

What are the causes of Cancer?

There are no definite causes of cancer; it can happen at any age to any sex. There are some factors which are believed to have more impact to cause cancer. Some major causes of cancer are tobacco products, alcohol, unhealthy diet, less physical exercises, UV radiations, Some Infections (HPV, Hepatitis), Environmental carcinogens, some food preservatives and hereditary.

Can cancer be prevented?

More than 40% cancers can be prevented. Some major points to prevent cancer are:

  • Avoid tobacco products.
  • Avoid Alcohol.
  • Don’t expose to UV radiations.
  • Eat healthy diets and think better.
  • Do sufficient physical exercise.
  • Don’t eat chemical containing foods and fungus infected foods.
  • Don’t eat carcinogenic foods and avoid inhaling carcinogens (Avoid Pollution).
  • Protect yourself from cancer causing infections.
  • Do regular health checkups and cancer screening tests.
  • Avoid early marriage and multiple partners.
  • Avoid giving birth of children in very young age.
  • Avoid contact or inhalation of toxic chemicals.
  • Eat fresh food, Green vegetables, Fruits.

Avoid Fats, Burn food. Take care of hygiene of private parts. Eat less salt.

Are there any vaccines for cancer prevention?

Medical science has developed some vaccines which are believed to prevent some cancers. HPV vaccine is for prevention of cervical cancer and HBV vaccine to prevent Hepatitis B and live cancer. These vaccines are widely used in developed countries and many countries have already included it in national vaccination programs but in poor countries like Nepal, these vaccines are not introduced, only few pilot projects have been carried out. HPV vaccines are given when a girl become sexually active. In Nepal if HPV vaccination can be kept in national vaccination program, many girls can be saved from the devastating impact of cervical cancer which is caused by infection of HPV (Human Papiloma Virus).

Is cancer curable?

Most of the cancers are curable if detected earlier and to detect cancer early we should regularly undergo for cancer screening tests like pap smear, mammogram etc. Cervical cancer and breast cancer of women can be prevented and detected early by regular pap test and breast mammogram. These are the most preventable and curable cancers of women if general preventing measures can be taken. Due to lack of awareness, every year lots women loss their life of cervical and breast cancer. These are the most common cancer among women of Nepal whereas most less common cancer of western world due to awareness and screening services.

Treatments of Cancer:


  • Painless, does not hurt
  • Sophisticated Machines are required
  • Invisible
  • Like ordinary X-ray picture taking
  • Each session lasts for just 4-5 minutes


  • Protect from spreading of cancer cells.
  • Slow Cancer’s Growth
  • Kill Cancer Cells going to other parts of the body
  • Chemotherapy may have certain side effects like hair loss, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite but these symptoms are general and no one has to be worried of it.

Removal of cancer tissue with safety margin & Also removal of draining lymph nodes If your cancer has not spread beyond the particular parts of the body, your health (apart from the cancer) is reasonably good .The cancer affected part of the body will be removed through Surgery.